Read our live coverage of election day in Spain, where voters were called to the polls for the fourth time since 2015.
As it did at the April 28 general election, the Socialist Party once again won the most votes but fell short of a majority. Meanwhile, the PP recovered from the terrible result it saw at the last general election, to come in second place. Far-right Vox is now the third-biggest force in Congress, while Unidas Podemos saw its support further eroded. Ciudadanos had a terrible result, dropping to just 10 seats in Congress compared to the 57 it managed in April.
Since 2017, Spanish politics has been defined by a lack of parliamentary majorities and the inability of politicians to reach governing deals, something that looks set to continue after today’s result.
Here is our full story of today's general election in Spain.
Socialists win repeat Spanish election, Vox becomes third-biggest force in Congress
A poll that was meant to unblock the political situation in Spain has only served to complicate it, with losses for the left, a recovery for the PP and a huge boost for the far-right
Popular Party leader Pablo Casado has appeared before the press to celebrate the election results.
“We have show that we are strong and that we will continue serving the Spanish people. [...] Sánchez has lost his referendum. [...] We are going to see what Pedro Sánchez puts forward, and then we will exercise our responsibility because the political blocade in Spain cannot continue any longer.
Ciudadanos party chief Albert Rivera has appeared before supporters and the press to address the center-right party's disastrous result, having fallen from 57 seats to just 10.
“What we had today was an unmigated bad result, and with no excuses. Given these bad results I believe that as a political leader [...] it is my obligation to call an urgent extraordainary meeting of the party executive."
Rivera added that he would leave his future at the head of the party in the hands of its grassroots members.
EL PAÍS political correspondent Lucía Abellán: "The speech by a triumphant Santiago Abascal left behind a good sample of the mantras that from now on we will hear a lot more often in Congress. Homeland, nation, [...] and the alleged threat from migrants all form part of the daily discourse of Vox."
Crushing night for Ciudadanos (Citizens), which has fallen to 10 seats and is now the sixth-most-voted party, beaten by Vox, Podemos and the Catalan Republican Left. Half of its leadership will be left without a seat in Congress, reports Elsa García de Blas.
In the photo, Ciudadanos leader Albert Rivera casts his vote in Madrid. Photo: Uly Martín.
EL PAÍS political correspondent Anabel Díez. "Euphoria in Vox. And with good reason. They are set to win 53 seats compared to the 24 they picked up on their debut in Congress [in April]. That strength ties up the PP. Not just because of the influence that they will have on every measure that is proposed in Congress, but also because of the strict vigilance that they will submit the PP to."
A tweet from the EL PAÍS gender correspondent, Pilar Álvarez:
"53 deputies [from Vox] to advocate that marriage is only for a man and a women, that homosexuals should not adopt, that gender violence doesn't exist, that media outlets can be vetoed, that abortion should not be free, and that everything is the fault of foreign minors..."
Marine Le Pen, the leader of the far-right National Rally party in France, has sent out a tweet to congratulate leader of Vox, Santiago Abascal. "The Vox movement has this afternoon managed a dazzling progression in the Spanish elections. Congratulations to its leader Santiago Abascal for his tremendous work in opposition, which is now bearing fruit after just a few years."