Read our live coverage of election day in Spain, where voters were called to the polls for the fourth time since 2015.
As it did at the April 28 general election, the Socialist Party once again won the most votes but fell short of a majority. Meanwhile, the PP recovered from the terrible result it saw at the last general election, to come in second place. Far-right Vox is now the third-biggest force in Congress, while Unidas Podemos saw its support further eroded. Ciudadanos had a terrible result, dropping to just 10 seats in Congress compared to the 57 it managed in April.
Since 2017, Spanish politics has been defined by a lack of parliamentary majorities and the inability of politicians to reach governing deals, something that looks set to continue after today’s result.